Essay Wikipedia Indonesia History

Tourism in Indonesia is an important component of the Indonesian economy as well as a significant source of its foreign exchange revenues. The vast country of sprawling archipelago has much to offer, from natural beauty, historical heritage to cultural diversity. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council, the direct contribution of travel and tourism to Indonesia's GDP in 2014 was IDR 325,467 billion (US$26,162 million) constituting 3.2% of the total GDP. By 2019, the Indonesian government wants to have doubled this figure to 8 percent of GDP and the number of visitors needs to double to about 20 million.[1] The tourism sector ranked as the 4th largest among goods and services export sectors.[2]

During 2016 about 12.02 million foreign tourists visited Indonesia, which was 15.5% higher than that of 2015.[3] In year 2015, 9.73 million international visitors entered Indonesia, staying in hotels for an average of 7.5 nights and spending an average of US$1,142 per person during their visit, or US$152.22 per person per day.[1] Singapore, Malaysia, China, Australia, and Japan are the top five sources of visitors to Indonesia.

The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2017 ranks Indonesia 42nd out of 136 countries overall with Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index score of 4.2.[4][5] The 2015 report ranks the price competitiveness of Indonesia's tourism sector the 3rd out of 141 countries. It mentions that Indonesia has quite good travel and tourism policy and enabling conditions (ranked 9th). The country also scores quite good on natural and cultural resources (ranked 17th). However, the country scored rather low in infrastructure sub-index (ranked 75th), as some aspect of tourist service infrastructure are underdeveloped.[6]

In 2016, the government was reported to be investing more in tourism development by attracting more foreign investors. The government has given priority to 10 destinations as follows: Borobudur, Central Java; Mandalika, West Nusa Tenggara; Labuan Bajo, East Nusa Tenggara; Bromo-Tengger-Semeru, East Java; Thousand Islands, Jakarta; Toba, North Sumatra; Wakatobi, Southeast Sulawesi; Tanjung Lesung, Banten; Morotai, North Maluku; and Tanjung Kelayang, Belitung. As quoted in The Jakarta Post, the government is aiming for 275 million trips by domestic tourists by end of 2019.[7] The government has also secured commitments from potential investors, totalling US$70 million in the areas of building accommodation, marina and ecotourism facilities in 3 of the 10 areas.[7]

Overview[edit]

Both nature and culture are major components of Indonesian tourism. The natural heritage can boast a unique combination of a tropical climate, a vast archipelago of 17,508 islands, 6,000 of them being inhabited,[9] the second longest shoreline in the world (54,716 km) after Canada.[10] It is the worlds largest and most populous country situated only on islands.[11] The beaches in Bali, diving sites in Bunaken, Mount Bromo in East Java, Lake Toba and various national parks in Sumatra are just a few examples of popular scenic destinations. These natural attractions are complemented by a rich cultural heritage that reflects Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity. One fact that exemplifies this richness is that 719 living languages are used across the archipelago.[12] The ancient Prambanan and Borobudur temples, Toraja, Yogyakarta, Minangkabau, and of course Bali, with its many Hindu festivities, are some of the popular destinations for cultural tourism.

Tourism in Indonesia is currently overseen by the Indonesian Ministry of Tourism.[13] International tourism campaigns have been focusing largely on its tropical destinations with white sand beaches, blue sky, and cultural attractions. Beach resorts and hotels have been developed in some popular tourist destinations, especially Bali island as the primary destination. At the same time, the integration of cultural affairs and tourism under the scope of the same ministry shows that cultural tourism is considered an integral part of Indonesia's tourism industry, and conversely, that tourism is used to promote and preserve the cultural heritage.

Some of the challenges Indonesia's tourism industry has to face include the development of infrastructure to support tourism across the sprawling archipelago, incursions of the industry into local traditions (adat), and the impact of tourism development on the life of local people. The tourism industry in Indonesia has also faced setbacks due to problems related to security. Since 2002, warnings have been issued by some countries over terrorist threats and ethnic as well as religious conflicts in some areas, significantly reducing the number of foreign visitors for a few years. However, the number of international tourists has bounced back positively since 2007, and reached a new record in 2008[14][15] and kept rising since then.[16]

In 2017, based on World Economic Forum survey, Indonesia got a Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index score of 4.2, ranking at the 42nd [5] (up from 50th in 2015, 70th in 2013, 74th in 2011 and 81st in 2009) of 136 countries.[17][18] Aspects that need to be improved to move up the rank ladder are; tourism and ICT infrastructures, health and hygiene, environmental sustainability, and affinity for travel and tourism.

Branding[edit]

In late January 2011 Culture and Tourism Minister Jero Wacik announced that "Wonderful Indonesia" would replace the previous "Visit Indonesia Year" branding used by the nation's official tourism promotional campaigns, although the logo of stylised curves Garuda remain.[19] The minister announced that in 2010, foreign tourists visiting Indonesia touched 7 million and made predictions of 7.7 million in 2011. He was reported as describing the new branding as reflecting "the country's beautiful nature, unique culture, varied food, hospitable people and price competitiveness. "We expect each tourist will spend around US$1,100 and with an optimistic target of 7.7 million arrivals, we will get $8.3 billion," from this. The Culture and Tourism Minister added that 50 percent of the revenue would be generated from about 600 meetings, conventions and exhibitions that were expected to take place in various places throughout the country 2011. He further added in the announcements of January 2011 that his ministry would be promoting the country's attractions under the eco-cultural banner.[20]

Statistics[edit]

Tourist arrivals in Indonesia by nationality (2000-2016)[edit]

Source: Statistics Indonesia[21]

Country2000200120022003200420052006200720082009
 Singapore1,301,5701,322,7031,288,4961,415,5631,619,5721,066,4611,164,0821,160,2001,197,2671,138,071
 Malaysia408,562409,231397,983407,958482,059564,321699,124799,9901,009,7221,041,053
 China16,26618,02819,84031,49739,936128,681182,341269,216354,641444,598
 Australia438,473452,144384,667310,742444,040356,287208,205287,103418,899571,541
 Japan710,769690,652679,607502,997652,854511,007432,989517,356559,888488,320
 South Korea181,032211,220218,155190,630246,545263,356298,228337,246331,409260,314
 India80,52537,42639,31432,82041,58258,35994,258123,465155,391156,545
 United Kingdom193,303205,916173,132121,361128,578214,515137,655148,756184,604183,262
 United States211,033196,625175,474141,635162,627169,232129,152138,266174,547165,098
 Philippines48,78452,48761,71154,54966,679100,176187,711192,868195,675196,429
 Taiwan374,679370,851384,062345,398368,680230,235226,611218,268218,146204,794
 France106,166107,714113,43481,31497,225120,122108,697114,094129,446165,656
 Germany176,771184,334166,501131,012152,063144,983106,916111,512142,767133,032
 Netherlands120,326131,124125,855103,866107,919105,95493,147111,882141,202154,932
 Thailand36,91441,36443,48633,76249,33373,93666,86471,75366,01293,381
Country2010201120122013201420152016
 Singapore1,206,3601,324,8391,324,7061,432,0601,559,0441,594,1021,515,701
 Malaysia1,171,7371,173,3511,269,0891,380,6861,418,2561,431,7281,541,197
 China511,188594,997726,088858,1401,052,7051,249,0911,556,771
 Australia769,585933,376952,717983,9111,145,5761,090,0251,302,292
 Japan416,151423,113463,486497,399505,175528,606545,392
 South Korea296,060320,596328,989351,154352,004375,586386,789
 India159,373181,791196,983231,266267,082306,960422,045
 United Kingdom192,335201,221219,726236,794244,594286,806352,017
 United States177,677203,205217,599236,375246,397269,062316,782
 Philippines171,181210,029236,866247,573248,182267,700298,910
 Taiwan214,192228,922217,708247,146220,328223,478252,849
 France160,913171,736184,273201,917208,537208,679256,229
 Germany144,411149,110158,212173,470184,463201,202243,873
 Netherlands158,957163,268152,749161,402168,494172,371200,811
 Thailand111,645115,036114,867125,059114,272118,579124,569
Indonesian Tourism Statistics[14][22][23][24][25][26]
YearInternational visitorsAverage stay (days)
20005,064,21712.26
20015,153,62010.49
20025,033 4009.79
20034,467,0219.69
20045,321,1659.47
20055,002,1019.05
20064,871,3519.09
20075,505,7599.02
20086,429,0278.58
20096,452,2597.69
20107,002,9448.04
20117,649,7317.84
20128,044,4627.70
20138,802,1297.65
20149,435,4117.66
201510,230,7758.53
201611,519,275

The ten most popular tourist destinations in Indonesia recorded by Central Statistics Agency (BPS) are Bali, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Jakarta, North Sumatra, Lampung, South Sulawesi, South Sumatra, Banten and West Sumatra (which would make it 11 provinces today due to Banten previously having been a part of West Java).[27]

As with most countries, domestic tourists are by far the largest market segment. The biggest movement of domestic tourists is during the annual Eid ul-Fitr, locally known as lebaran. During this period, which is a two-week holiday after the month of fasting during Ramadan, many city-dwelling Muslim Indonesians visit relatives in their home towns. Intercity traffic is at its peak and often an additional surcharge is applied during this time.

Over the five years up to 2006, attention has been focused on generating more domestic tourism. Competition amongst budget airlines has increased the number of domestic air travellers throughout the country. Recently, the Ministry of Labour legislated to create long weekends by combining public holidays that fall close to weekends, except in the case of important religious holidays. During these long weekends, most hotels in popular destinations are fully booked.

Since 2000, on average, there have been five million foreign tourists each year (see table), who spend an average of US$100 per day. With an average visit duration of 9–12 days, Indonesia gains US$4.6 billion of foreign exchange income annually.[14] This makes tourism Indonesia's third most important non-oil–gas source of foreign revenue, after timber and textile products.[9]

After toppled Japan two years ago, China as the world's biggest tourism spenders now toppled Australia to become number three with 30.42 percent increase year-on-year (y-o-y), while totally foreign tourists growth by 10.6 percent y-o-y set to more than 2.9 million. The top countries of origin Q1 2014 data is come from the Asia-Pacific region, with Singapore (15.7 percent), Malaysia (14.0), China (11.0), Australia and Japan among the top countries of origin.[28] The United Kingdom, France, and Germany are the largest sources of European visitors.[29] Although Dutch visitors are at least in part keen to explore the historical relationships, many European visitors are seeking the tropical weather at the beaches in Bali.

Around 59% of all visitors are travelling to Indonesia for holiday, while 38% for business purposes.[30]

In 2012, according to the World Travel & Tourism Council travel and tourism made a total contribution of 8.9% of GDP and supported 8% of total employment in Indonesia.[30]

Historical context[edit]

Indonesia seems to have been a travel destination for centuries. Some panels in Borobudur bas-reliefs depicted drink vendors, warungs (small restaurants), tavern or lodging where people were drinking and dancing. The historical record about travel in Indonesia can be found since 14th century.[31] The Nagarakretagama reported about King Hayam Wuruk's royal travel throughout Majapahit realm in East Java with large numbers of carriages, accompanied by nobles, royal courtiers, officials and servants.[31] Although it seems as stately affair, for some instances the king's journey is somewhat resembles modern day tour, as the king visited numbers of interesting places; from temples such as Palah and Jajawa, to enjoying mountain scenery, having bath in petirtaan (bathing pools) and beach. The 15th-century travelogue of Bujangga Manik, a travelling Hindu scholar-priest from Pakuan Pajajaran, reported about his travel around Java and Bali. Although his travel was a pilgrimage one; visiting temples and sacred places in Java and Bali, sometimes he behaves like a modern-day tourist, such as sitting around fanning his body while enjoying beautiful mountain scenery in Puncak area, look upon Gede volcano that he describes as the highest point around Pakuan Pajajaran (capital of Sunda kingdom).[32]

Initially the tourism, service and hospitality sector in Dutch East Indies were developed to cater the lodging, entertainment and leisure needs of domestic visitors, especially the wealthy Dutch plantation owners and merchants during their stay in the city. In the 19th century, colonial heritage hotels equipped with dance halls, live music and fine dining restaurants were established in Dutch East Indies urban areas, such as Hotel des Indes (est. 1829) in Batavia (now Jakarta), Savoy Homann Hotel (est. 1871) in Bandung, Hotel Oranje (est. 1910) in Surabaya, and Hotel De Boer in Medan. Since the 19th century Dutch East Indies has attracted visitors from The Netherlands.[31] The first national tourism bureau was the Vereeeging Toeristen Verkeer, established by Governor General of Dutch East Indies in early 20th century, and shared their head office in Batavia with Koninklijke Nederlansch Indische Luchtfahrt Maatschapijj (part of KLM) that began to fly from Amsterdam to Batavia in 1929.[31] In 1913, Vereeneging Touristen Verkeer wrote a guide book about tourism places in the Indies. Since then Bali become known to international tourist with foreign tourist arrivals rose for more than 100% in 1927.[31] Much of the international tourism of the 1920s and 1930s was by international visitors on oceanic cruises. The 1930s did see a modest but significant influx of mainly European tourists and longer term stayers to Bali. Many came for the blossoming arts scene in the Ubud area, which was as much a two-way exchange between the Balinese and outsiders as it was an internal phenomenon.[33]

Tourism more or less disappeared during World War II, Indonesian National Revolution and in the early years of the Sukarno era. On 1 July 1947, the government of Republic of Indonesia tried to revive tourism sector in Indonesia by establishing HONET (Hotel National & Tourism) led by R. Tjitpo Ruslan. This new national tourism authority took over many of the colonial heritage hotels in Java and renamed them all "Hotel Merdeka". After Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference in 1949, this tourism authority changed its name to NV HORNET.[31] In 1952 the President formed the Inter-Departement Committee on Tourism Affairs which is responsible for reestablishing Indonesia as the world's tourism destination.[34] National pride and identity in the late 1950s and early 1960s was incorporated into the monumentalism of Sukarno in Jakarta— and this included the development of grand multi-storied international standard hotels and beach resorts, such as Hotel Indonesia in Jakarta (est. 1962), Ambarrukmo Hotel in Yogyakarta (est. 1965), Samudra Beach Hotel in Pelabuhan Ratu beach West Java (est. 1966), and Inna Grand Bali Beach Hotel in Bali (est. 1966). The political and economic instability of the mid-1960s saw tourism decline radically again. Bali, and in particular the small village of Kuta, was however, in the 1960s, an important stopover on the overland hippy trail between Australia and Europe, and a "secret" untouched surf spot.[35]

In the early-to-mid-1970s, high standard hotels and tourist facilities began to appear in Jakarta and Bali. After the completion of Borobudur restoration project in 1982, Yogyakarta become a popular tourist destination in Indonesia after Bali, mostly attracted to this 8th-century Buddhist monument, surrounding ancient Javanese temples and Yogyakarta Sultanatepalace. From this period to the end of the Suharto era, governmental policies of the tourism industry included an array of regulations and developments to encourage increasing numbers of international tourists to both visit Indonesia and stay longer.

Nature tourism[edit]

Main articles: Fauna of Indonesia and Flora of Indonesia

Indonesia has a well-preserved, natural ecosystem with rainforests that stretch over about 57% of Indonesia's land (225 million acres), approximately 2% of which are mangrove systems.[36][37] One reason why the natural ecosystem in Indonesia is still well-preserved is because only 6,000 islands out of 17,000 are permanently inhabited.[38] Forests on Sumatra and Java are examples of popular tourist destinations. Moreover, Indonesia has one of longest coastlines in the world, measuring 54,716 kilometres (33,999 mi),[39] with a number of beaches and island resorts, such as those in southern Bali, Lombok,[40]Bintan and Nias Island.[41] However, most of the well-preserved beaches are those in more isolated and less developed areas, such as Karimunjawa, the Togian Islands, and the Banda Islands.

Dive sites[edit]

With more than 17,508 islands, Indonesia presents ample diving opportunities. With 20% of the world's coral reefs, over 3,000 different species of fish and 600 coral species, deep water trenches, volcanic sea mounts, World War II wrecks, and an endless variety of macro life, scuba diving in Indonesia is both excellent and inexpensive.[42]Bunaken National Marine Park, at the northern tip of Sulawesi, claims to have seven times more genera of coral than Hawaii,[43] and has more than 70% of all the known fish species of the Indo-Western Pacific.[44] According to Conservation International, marine surveys suggest that the marine life diversity in the Raja Ampat area is the highest recorded on Earth.[45] Moreover, there are over 3,500 species living in Indonesian waters, including sharks, dolphins, manta rays, turtles, morays, cuttlefish, octopus and scorpionfish, compared to 1,500 on the Great Barrier Reef and 600 in the Red Sea.[46]Tulamben Bay in Bali boasts the wreck of the 120 metres (390 ft) US Army commissioned transport vessel, the Liberty.[47] Other popular dive sites on Bali are at Candidasa and Menjangan. Across the Badung Strait from Bali, there are several popular dive sites on Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Penida. Lombok's three Gilis (Gili Air, Gili Meno and Gili Trawangan) are popular as is Bangka. Saronde Island is a very popular spot also in Gorontalo Sulawesi. Some of the most famous diving sites in Indonesia are also the most difficult to reach, with places like Biak off the coast of Papua and the Alor Archipelago among the popular, more remote, destinations for divers.

Surf breaks[edit]

Surfing is also a popular water activity in Indonesia and the sites are recognised as world class.[48] The well-known sports are mostly located on the southern, Indian Ocean side of Indonesia, for example, the large oceanic surf breaks on southern Java. However, the north coast does not receive the same surf from the Java Sea. Surf breaks can be found all the way along Sumatra, down to Nusa Tenggara, including Aceh, Bali, Banten, Java, Lombok, the Mentawai Islands, and Sumbawa. Although Indonesia has many world-class surfing spots, the majority of surfers come from abroad, especially Australia and United States. However, enthusiasm for local surfing began in Bali and West Java's Pelabuhan Ratu and Pangandaran beach, with most surfers arriving from nearby cities of Jakarta and Bandung. On Bali, there are about 33 surf spots, from West Bali to East Bali including four on the offshore island of Nusa Lembongan. In Sumbawa, Hu'u and Lakey Beach in Cempi Bay are popular surfing spots among surfing enthusiasts. Sumatra is the second island, with the greatest number of surf spots, with 18 altogether. High season for surfing is around May to September with the trade winds blowing from east to south-east. From October to April, winds tend to come from the west to north-west, so the east coast breaks get the offshore winds.[citation needed]

Two well-known surf breaks in Indonesia are the G-Land in the Bay of Grajagan, East Java, and Lagundri Bay at the southern end of Nias island. G-Land was first identified in 1972, when a surfer saw the break from the window of a plane. Since 6 to 8-foot (Hawaiian scale) waves were discovered by surfers at Lagundri Bay in 1975, the island has become famous for surfing worldwide.[citation needed]

National parks[edit]

Main article: List of national parks of Indonesia

Bogor Botanical Gardens established in 1817, and Cibodas Botanical Gardens established in 1862, are two among the oldest botanical gardens in Asia. With rich collections of tropical plants, these gardens is the centre of botanical research as well as tourism attraction since colonial era.

There are 50 national parks in Indonesia, of which six are World Heritage listed. The largest national parks in Sumatra are the 9,500-square-kilometre (3,700 sq mi) Gunung Leuser National Park, the 13,750-square-kilometre (5,310 sq mi) Kerinci Seblat National Park and the 3,568-square-kilometre (1,378 sq mi) Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, all three recognised as Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra on the UNESCO World Heritage list. Other national parks on the list are Lorentz National Park in Papua, Komodo National Park in the Lesser Sunda Islands, and Ujung Kulon National Park in the west of Java.

To be noticed, different national parks offer different biodiversity, as the natural habitat in Indonesia is divided into two areas by the Wallace line. The Wallaceabiogeographical distinction means the western part of Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan) have the same flora and fauna characteristics as the Asian continent, whilst the remaining eastern part of Indonesia has similarity with the Australian continent.[40]

Many native species such as Sumatran elephants, Sumatran tigers, Sumatran rhinoceros, Javan rhinoceros and orangutans are listed as endangered or critically endangered, and the remaining populations are found in national parks and other conservation areas. Sumatran orangutan can be visited in the Bukit Lawang conservation area, while the Bornean orangutan can be visited in Tanjung Puting national park, Central Kalimantan. The world's largest flower, rafflesia arnoldi, and the tallest flower, titan arum, can be found in Sumatra.

The east side of the Wallacea line offers the most remarkable, rarest, and exotic animals on earth.[49]Birds-of-paradise, locally known as cendrawasih, are plumed birds that can be found among other fauna in Papua New Guinea. The largest bird in Papua is the flightless cassowary. One species of lizard, the Komodo dragon can easily be found on Komodo, located in the Nusa Tenggara lesser islands region. Besides Komodo island, this endangered species can also be found on the islands of Rinca, Padar and Flores.[50]

Volcanoes[edit]

Main article: List of volcanoes in Indonesia

Hiking and camping in the mountains are popular adventure activities. Some mountains contain ridge rivers, offering rafting activity. Though volcanic mountains can be dangerous, they have become major tourist destinations. Several tourists have died on the slopes of Mount Rinjani, Indonesia's second highest volcano and a popular destination for climbers visiting Lombok in eastern Indonesia. Popular active volcanoes are the 2,329-metre (7,641 ft) high Mount Bromo in the East Java province with its scenic volcanic desert around the crater, the upturned boat shaped Tangkuban Perahu and the volcanic crater Kawah Putih, north and south of Bandung respectively and both with drive-in access up to the crater, the most active volcano in Java, Mount Merapi near Yogyakarta, and the legendary Krakatau with its new caldera known as anak krakatau (the child of Krakatau). Gede Pangrango volcano in West Java is also a popular hiking destination, especially among domestic hikers.

In Sumbawa, Mount Tambora with its historical massive volcanic eruption back in 1815 that produced massive caldera also had gained attention among hikers. In neighbouring island of Flores, the three-coloured volcanic crater-lake of Kelimutu is also hailed as one of Indonesia's natural wonder and had attracted visitors worldwide. Puncak Jaya in the Lorentz National Park, the highest mountain in Indonesia and one of the few mountains with ice caps at the (tropical) equator[51][52] offers the opportunity of rock climbing. In Sumatra, there are the remains of a supervolcanoeruption that have created the landscape of Lake Toba close to Medan in North Sumatra.

Cultural tourism[edit]

Main article: Culture of Indonesia

Indonesia consists of 300 ethnic groups, spread over a 1.8 million km2 area of 6,000 inhabited islands.[9] This creates a cultural diversity, further compounded by Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic and European colonialist influences. In Bali, where most of Indonesian Hindus live, cultural and religious festivals with Balinese dance-drama performances in Balinese temples are major attractions to foreign tourists.

Despite foreign influences, a diverse array of indigenous traditional cultures is still evident in Indonesia. The indigenous ethnic group of Toraja in South Sulawesi, still has strong tradition that descend from animistic belief even though most of Torajanese is Christian know. One of the most famous Toraja tradition is their funeral rites, Rambu Solo. The Minangkabau ethnic group retain a unique matrilineal culture, despite being devoted Muslims. Other indigenous ethnic groups include the Asmat and Dani in Papua, the Dayak in Kalimantan and the Mentawai in Sumatra, where traditional rituals are still observed.

Cultural tourism also plays a significant part in Yogyakarta, a special province in Indonesia known as centre of classical Javanese fine art and culture.[53] The rise and fall of Buddhist, Hindu, and Islamic kingdoms in Central Java has transformed Yogyakarta into a melting pot of Indonesian culture.

Most major Indonesian cities have their state-owned museums, although most are in modest display. The most complete and comprehensive museum that displaying Indonesian culture and history spanned from prehistoric to colonial era is National Museum of Indonesia located in Jakarta.

For Indonesian and foreign visitors unable to visit all Indonesian provinces, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah in East Jakarta provides a comprehensive microcosm of Indonesian culture. Established in 1975 by Tien Suharto, this park displaying museums, separate pavilions with the collections of Indonesian architecture, clothing, dances and traditions all depicted impeccably.

Ancient Hindu and Buddhist temples[edit]

Main article: Candi of Indonesia

From the 4th century until the 15th century, Hinduism and Buddhism shaped the culture of Indonesia. Kingdoms rise and fall, such as Medang Kingdom, Srivijaya, Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit. Along the Indonesian classical history of Hindu-Buddhist era, they produced some temples and monuments called candi. The best-preserved Buddhist shrine, which was built during the Sailendra dynasty in the 8th century, is Borobudur temple in Central Java. A giant stone mandala stepped pyramid adorned with bell-shaped stupas, richly adorned with bas-reliefs telling the stories and teachings of Buddha.

A few kilometres to the southeast is the Prambanan complex, the largest Hindu temple in Indonesia built during the second Mataram dynasty.[40] The Prambanan temple is dedicated to Trimurti; Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma, three highest gods in Hinduism. Both the Borobudur and the Prambanan temple compounds have been listed in the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1991. Both temple are the largest and the most popular, conveniently accessible from Yogyakarta, the heartland of Javanese culture. The RamayanaJavanese dance

Piaynemo karst archipelago in Raja Ampat, West Papua
Indonesia possesses rich and colourful culture, such as Barong dance performance in Bali.
Borobudur is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.[8]
Hotel Indonesia (est. 1962), one of the earliest high-rise buildings in Jakarta
Raja Ampat, one of the world's richest marine biodiversity
Surfing in Kuta beach, Bali
Bali is famous for its rich culture, Hindu festivals and dances
Sewu Mahayana Buddhist temple near Prambanan, Central Java

This article is about the national anthem. For other uses, see Indonesia Raya (disambiguation).

English: Indonesia the Great

Original recording from 1945


National anthem of  Indonesia
Also known asIndonesia Raja → (old spelling)
English: Great Indonesia
LyricsWage Rudolf Supratman, 1924
MusicWage Rudolf Supratman, 1924
Adopted17 August 1945 (original)
17 August 1950 (official)
Audio sample

'"Indonesia Raya"'


(Symphonic rendition by Jozef Cleber)

"Indonesia Raya" has been the national anthem of Indonesia since the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Indonesia on the 17 August 1945. The song was introduced by its composer, Wage Rudolf Supratman, on 28 October 1928 during the Second Indonesian Youth Congress in Batavia.[1] The song marked the birth of the all-archipelago nationalist movement in Indonesia that supported the idea of one single "Indonesia" as successor to the Dutch East Indies, rather than split into several colonies. The first newspaper to openly publish the musical notation and lyrics of "Indonesia Raya" — an act of defiance towards the Dutch authorities — was the Chinese Indonesian weekly Sin Po.[2]

The first stanza of "Indonesia Raya" was chosen as the national anthem when Indonesia proclaimed its independence at 17 August 1945. Jozef Cleber, a Dutch composer, created an arrangement of the tune for philharmonic orchestra in 1950. This arrangement is widely used.[3]

"Indonesia Raya" is played in flag raising ceremonies (student assemblies) in schools across Indonesia every Monday. The flag is raised in a solemn and timed motion so that it reaches the top of the flagpole as the anthem ends. The main flag raising ceremony is held annually on 17 August to commemorate Independence day. The ceremony is led by the President of Indonesia and is usually held in Merdeka Palace.

During the rendition or singing of the national anthem, all present except those in uniform should stand, face toward the music, and pay respect. Members of the Armed Forces and veterans who are present and not in uniform may render the military salute; those not should stand still.[4]

History[edit]

Indonesian Youth Congress[edit]

Main article: Youth Pledge

When he lived in Jakarta, Supratman read an essay from Timbul magazine. The essay author challenged Indonesian music experts to compose Indonesian national anthem. Supratman - who was also a musician - felt challenged, and started composing. In 1924, the song was completed during his time in Bandung and entitled Indonesia.

In 1928, youths from across Indonesia held the first Indonesian Youth Congress, an official meeting to push for the independence of the nation. Upon hearing about the efforts, young reporter Wage Rudolf Supratman contacted the organizers of Congress with the intention of reporting the story, but they requested that he not publish the story from fear of Dutch colonial authorities. The organizers wanted to avoid suspicion so that the Dutch would not ban the event. Supratman promised them this, and the organizers allowed him free access to the event. Supratman was inspired by the meetings and intended to play the song for the conference. After receiving encouragement from the conference leader Sugondo Djojopuspito, Supratman played the song on the violin, hoping that it would someday become their national anthem. Supratman first performed Indonesia on the violin on 28 October 1928 during the Second Indonesian Youth Congress.[5] He kept the script to himself because he felt that it was not the appropriate time to announce it.[6]

Distribution[edit]

Following the Second Youth Congress, the text of Indonesia was distributed by many political and student organisations. The press also played a key role in the publication of the song. On 7 November 1928, the Soeloeh Ra'jat Indonesia daily published the words to the song. This was followed by the Sin Po Chinese weekly on 10 November.[7] In 1929, Wage Rudolf Supratman changed the title of his song to "Indonesia Raya" and appended the phrase National Anthem of Indonesia below it, but the text of the song did not change. Supratman personally printed and distributed copies of the song with its new title through pamphlets. All one thousand copies of the manuscript were sold within a short amount of time to his friends and family.[8]

A businessman friend of his, Yo Kim Tjan, also expressed interest in recording "Indonesia Raya". With Supratman's consent, Yo created a copy of the song on a gramophone record overseas to obtain the best sound quality with the intention of bringing the copy back to Indonesia. However, before Yo was able to do so, Dutch colonial authorities had imposed a ban on the song. Yo was unable to bring the original back but was able to bring home a copy. According to Yo, Supratman had also given him the rights to sell record copies of "Indonesia Raya" through his store Toko Populair.[9]

Orchestral rendition[edit]

Initially, there had been no orchestral rendition of the anthem. Thus in 1950, President Soekarno made an appeal to Jozef Cleber to compose a symphonic rendition of "Indonesia Raya".

Cleber at the time had been among the 46 persons of the Cosmopolitan Orchestra, under direction of Yvon Baarspul, sent by the Netherlands Government to help the Indonesian Government for its own music development in Jakarta. "Jos" Cleber was an experienced arranger for not only popular songs back in his hometown, but also for Indonesian pop song arrangements such as Di Bawah Sinar Bulan Purnama and Rangkaian Melati. The final rendition of the anthem is still in common use today.

The arrangements starts with a Tutti of strings and trumpets (in Verse A) that represents a brave and an elegant sound, and in the middle of the song (in Verse B) is played smoothly by strings, and finally (in Verse C) comes another Tutti of strings and trumpets, together with the timpani and cymbals, giving it a brave sound fitting for a national anthem that was respected by the people.

The original recording was recorded by the Cosmopolitan Orchestra under Cleber's direction on Phillips tape in 1951 by the Radio of Jakarta. The record was digitally restored in 1997 in Australia based on Cleber's sheet music that was kept in Jakarta, and it was played again by the Victorian Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Addie MS.

Ownership[edit]

In 1951, ownership of the copyright to "Indonesia Raya" came into question. President Sukarno ordered a search for the rightful heir to Supratman.[10] By law, Supratman was the copyright holder of "Indonesia Raya" as its composer. After Supratman's death in 1938, ownership of the rights to his works fell upon the designated heirs, his four surviving sisters. However, because "Indonesia Raya" was officially adopted as the national anthem of Indonesia on 17 August 1945, the work became the property of the state. In addition, the name of "Wage Rudolf Supratman" must be listed as its creator.[11]

As a national anthem, copies of "Indonesia Raya" cannot be circulated as merchandise to be sold. Consequently, the government had the obligation to obtain all the rights to distribute the song, including the original recording, from Yo Kim Tjan. In 1958, the government obtained the sole right to "Indonesia Raya" from Supratman's family.[12] The following year, Yo handed the original record of the song to the Indonesian government. With the recommendation of the Department of Education, the government also rewarded Supratman's sisters with 250,000 Indonesian rupiah each on 31 May 1960.[13]

National anthem[edit]

"Indonesia Raya", as stated in the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia (Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Indonesia tahun 1945) is the national anthem of Republic of Indonesia.[14] This is stipulated in the Chapter XV, Article 36B of the constitution.[15]

Furthermore, based on Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 44 Tahun 1958[16] (PP No.44/1958 - Government Regulation Number 44 Year 1958), the first stanza of "Indonesia Raya" is used as the official lyrics of the national anthem of Indonesia.

Lyrics[edit]

There is no official translation of "Indonesia Raya" into other languages. On 28 October 1953, on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the anthem, the Harian Umum daily published their own English, German, and Dutch translations of the song. A bulletin released by the Ministry of Information used these translations.[17] Currently, however, the translations are no longer published. The following table includes the original lyrics of the song in Indonesian, an approximate literal translation into English and a more poetic, singable one.

Indonesia Raya (Indonesia the Great)
Indonesian lyricsEnglish translationSingable English translation
First stanza

Indonesia, tanah airku
Tanah tumpah darahku
Di sanalah aku berdiri
Jadi pandu ibuku

Indonesia, kebangsaanku
Bangsa dan tanah airku
Marilah kita berseru
"Indonesia bersatu!"

Hiduplah tanahku, hiduplah negeriku
Bangsaku, rakyatku, semuanya
Bangunlah jiwanya, bangunlah badannya
Untuk Indonesia Raya

<REFRAIN >  :
Indonesia Raya, merdeka! Merdeka!
Tanahku, negeriku yang kucinta
Indonesia Raya, merdeka! Merdeka!
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya!
Indonesia Raya, merdeka! Merdeka!
Tanahku, negeriku yang kucinta
Indonesia Raya, merdeka! Merdeka!
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya!

Indonesia, my homeland.
The land where I have shed my blood.
It is there I stand,
to be my motherland's guide.

Indonesia, my country
My people and my homeland,
Let us proclaim
"Indonesians unite!"

Long live my land, long live my country
My people, my homeland, all of it
let her soul be raised may her body be awakened
For Indonesia the Great

<REFRAIN >  :
Indonesia the Great, independent and free
My home and country which I love
Indonesia the Great, independent and free
Long live Indonesia the Great!
Indonesia the Great, independent and free
My home and country which I love
Indonesia the Great, independent and free
Long live Indonesia the Great!
Indonesia, homeland beloved!

'tis for thee my blood is shed

Where stand I on guard

Our land fore'er to guide

Indonesians, fellow patriots!

A people brave and true

Let us all unite and proclaim,

Indonesians unite!

Long live our land, long live our folk

All ye brave, all ye free, all ye Indos

From sea to sea, awaken thee, patriot

For Indonesia the Great!

Indonesia the Great, be free, be free!

These islands of ours beloved dearly!

Indonesia the Great, be free, be free!

Long live Indonesia the Great!

Second stanza

Indonesia, tanah yang mulia
Tanah kita yang kaya
Di sanalah aku berdiri
Untuk selama-lamanya

Indonesia, tanah pusaka
Pusaka kita semuanya
Marilah kita mendoa
"Indonesia bahagia!"

Suburlah tanahnya, suburlah jiwanya
Bangsanya, rakyatnya, semuanya
Sadarlah hatinya, sadarlah budinya
Untuk Indonesia Raya

<REFRAIN >

Indonesia, a noble land
Our wealthy land
there I stand
Forever and ever

Indonesia, the land of heritage
A heritage to us all
Let us pray
"Joyful Indonesia!"

Fertile may her soil, flourish may her soul
The nation, the people, entirely
Vigilant may her heart, vigilant may her mind
For the Great Indonesia

<REFRAIN >
Indonesia, noble and sublime

A land bountiful and free

Thou art where I plant my roots

Forever to stand

Indonesia, land of my fathers

All thine children's heirloom

Let us pray to thine success

For Indonesians' joy!

Rich are thy fields, holy is thine soul

Every one of us, arise!

Open all thine hearts and minds

For Indonesia the Great!

Indonesia the Great, be free, be free!

My land so beloved dearly!

Indonesia the Great, be free, be free!

Long live Indonesia the Great!

Third stanza

Indonesia, tanah yang suci
Tanah kita yang sakti
Di sanalah aku berdiri
Menjaga ibu sejati

Indonesia, tanah berseri
Tanah yang aku sayangi
Marilah kita berjanji
"Indonesia abadi!"

Selamatlah rakyatnya, selamatlah putranya
Pulaunya, lautnya, semuanya
Majulah negerinya, majulah pandunya
Untuk Indonesia Raya

<REFRAIN >

Indonesia, a sacred land
Our victorious land
there, I stand
To defend the good mother

Indonesia, a radiant land
My beloved land
Let us pledge
"Indonesia is eternal!"

Safe may her people, safe may her sons
her islands, her seas entirely
Let the country be developed, let her scouts advance
For the Great Indonesia

<REFRAIN >
Indonesia, land so pure

A land mighty with resolve

Thou art whom I pledge to

My unchanging allegiance.

Indonesia, a resplendent spirit

Escapes not thine body nor soul

Let us all unite and proclaim

"Indonesia, one and true!"

May thy children be safe from all strife and war

Thy islands, thy seas, too

Indonesians, march on, Indonesians march on

For Indonesia the Great!

Indonesia the Great, be free, be free!

My land so beloved dearly!

Indonesia the Great, be free, be free!

Long live Indonesia the Great!

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^"Indonesia - Indonesia Raya". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 27 November 2011. 
  2. ^"National Geographic Indonesia Pewarta Melayu-Tionghoa di era pergerakan nasional". Archived from the original on 7 February 2011. 
  3. ^"Error". www.jakarta.go.id. 
  4. ^(in Indonesian)  Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 24 Tahun 2009. Wikisource. 2009. 
  5. ^Sularto 1982, p. 20
  6. ^Sularto 1982, pp. 11–13
  7. ^Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 37
  8. ^Sularto 1982, p. 28
  9. ^Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 38
  10. ^Winarno 2003, p. 63
  11. ^Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 61
  12. ^Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 62
  13. ^Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 64
  14. ^Wikisource:Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia#Section XV .2A.2A : The State.27s Flag.2C Language.2C and Coat of Arms.2C and The National Anthem
  15. ^s:Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia#Section XV .2A.2A : The State's Flag, Language, and Coat of Arms, and The National Anthem
  16. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2009.  (a news article stating the regulation regulating the symbol and instrument of the country)
  17. ^Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 59

References[edit]

  • Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya (1972), Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya (in Indonesian), Jakarta: Proyek Pengembangan Media Kebudayaan, OCLC 2391302. 
  • Sularto, Bambang (1982), Sejarah Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya (in Indonesian) (1st ed.), Jakarta: Balai Pustaka, OCLC 10894709. 
  • Winarno, Bondan (2003), Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya (in Indonesian), Jakarta: TSA Komunika, ISBN 979-97105-1-0. 

External links[edit]

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