Writings of R. M. Hare
1949. 'Imperative Sentences' (pdf file), Mind 58. Repr. in 1971c. 1950a. Review of E. W. Hirst, Morality and God, Philosophy 25. 1950b. Review of H. A. Prichard, Moral Obligation and Knowledge and Perception, Oxford Magazine (15 June). 1950c. 'Theology and Falsification', University I. Repr. in A. G. N. Flew and A. MacIntyre, eds., New Essays in Philosophical Theology (London: SCM Press, 1955); in R. E. Santoni, ed., Religious Language (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1968); in 1992d; and in other collections. Italian translation in collection ed. by G. Gava (Liviana, 1972). 1951a. 'Freedom of the Will', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, supp. vol. 25. Repr. in 1972b. 1951b. Review of G. C. Field, The Philosophy of Plato, Mind 60. 1951c. Review of S. E. Toulmin, An Examination of the Place of Reason in Ethics, Philosophical Quarterly I. 1951d. Review of R. Lepley, ed., Value: A Cooperative Inquiry, Mind 60. 1952a. Review of H. D. Lewis, Morals and Revelation, Philosophy 27. 1952b.(LM) The Language of Morals (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Italian translation, Il linguaggio della morale (Rome: Ubaldini, 1968); German, Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 1972; Japanese, Tokyo: Keiso Shobo, 1981; Portuguese, Sao Paolo: Martins Fontes, 1996. Extracts in Danish translation, Copenhagen: Gyldendalike, 1976. 1954a. Review of E. W. Hall, What is Value?, Mind 63. 1954b. Review of The Ethics of Aristotle, trans. J. A. K. Thompson, Oxford Magazine 62 (25 Feb.). 1954c. Review of J. Wisdom, Philosophy and Psychoanalysis. Philosophy 29. 1955a. 'Universalisability', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 55. Repr. in 1972b. German translation in G. Grewendorf and G. Meggle, eds., Seminar: Sprache und Ethik (Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 1974): Spanish in E. Rabossi and E Salmeron. eds., Etica y Analisis I (Mexico City: Mexico University Press, 1976). 1955b. 'Ethics and Politics' (two articles and letters), Listener (Oct.). Spanish translation, 'Etica y Politica' in Revista Universidad de San Carlos 33. First article repr. in 1972d, in M. Wakin, ed., War, Morality and the Military Profession (Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1979), and in P. Werhane, ed., Ethical Issues in Business (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991). 1956a. Review of P. H. Nowell-Smith, Ethics, Philosophy 31. 1956b. Review of U. Scarpelli, Filosofia analitica e giurisprudenza, Mind 65. 1957a. 'Geach: Good and Evil', Analysis 7. Repr. in P. Foot, ed.,Theories of Ethics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967) and in 1972b. Spanish translation in E. Rabossi and E. Salmeron, eds., Etica y Analisis I (Mexico City: Mexico University Press, 1976). 1957b. 'Oxford Moral Philosophy' (letters), Listener (21 Feb. and 28 Mar.). 1957c. Review of A. J. Ayer, The Problem of Knowledge and B. Russell, Logic and Knowledge, Spectator (4 Jan.). 1957d. 'Are Discoveries about the Uses of Words Empirical?' (pdf file), Journal of Philosophy 34. Full version in 1960a. 1957e. Review of J. O. Urmson, Philosophical Analysis and A. J. Ayer et al., The Revolution in Philosophy. Philosophische Rundschau 5 (in German). 1957f. 'Religion and Morals' in B. G. Mitchell, ed., Faith and Logic (London: Allen & Unwin). 1957g. Review of British Philosophy in the Mid-Century, ed. C. A. Mace, Spectator. 1959a. 'Broad's Approach to Moral Philosophy', in P. Schilpp, ed., The Philosophy of C. D. Broad (New York: Tudor). Repr. in 1971c and in 1971d. 1960a. 'Philosophical Discoveries' (pdf file) (the full version of 1957d), Mind 69. Repr. in A. Sesonske and N. Fleming, eds., Plato's Meno (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1965): R. Rorty, ed., The Linguistic Turn (Chicago, Ill.: Chicago University Press, 1967); C. Lyas, ed., Philosophy and Linguistics (London: Macmillan, 197I); N. Bowie, ed., The Tradition of Philosophy (Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth, 1986); and in 1971c. German translation in G. Grewendorf and G. Meggle, eds., Linguistik und Philosophie (Frankfurt a. M. Athenfium. 1974). 1960b. 'A School for Philosophers',Ratio 2 (also in German edition). Repr. in 1971d. 1960c. Review of F. E. Sparshott, An Enquiry into Goodness. Philosophical Quarterly 10. 1960d. "'Rien n'a d'importance": I'aneantissement es valeurs est-il pensable?', also discussion of other papers, in L. Beck, ed., La Philosophie analytique (Paris: Minuit). English version, 'Nothing Matters', in 1972d. Repr. in T. Beauchamp, ed., Death and Dying (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall 1978); E. Klemke, ed., The Meaning of Life (NewYork: Oxford University Press, 1981); J. Halberstam, d., Virtues and Values (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987), and other collections. German translation (abridged) in C. Fehige and G. Meggle, eds., Der Sinn des Lebens (Munich: 1995). 1960e. 'Ethics', in J. O. Urmson, ed., Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers (London: Rainbird). Repr. in M. Lipman, ed., Growing Up with Philosophy (Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 1978), and in 1972b. 1962. Review of M. Singer, Generalization in Ethics, Philosophical Quarterly 12. 1963a. (FR) Freedom and Reason (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Italian translation, Milan: II Saggiatore, 1971: German, Dusseldorf: Patmos, 1975, republished Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 1983. 1963b. 'Descriptivism', Proceedings of the British Academy 49. Repr. in W. D. Hudson, ed., The Is-Ought Question (London: Macmillan, 1969) and in 1972b. German translation in G. Grewendorf and G. Meggle, eds., Seminar: Sprache und Ethik (Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 1974): Spanish in E. Rabossi and E Salmeron, eds., Etica y Analisis I (Mexico City: Mexico University Press, 1976); Serbo-Croat in collection ed. by J. Babi-Avdispabic (Sarajevo: Svjetlost, 1987). 1963c. Letter in Times Literary Supplement (26 Apr.) on Review of Freedom and Reason. 1964a. 'Pain and Evil', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society. supp. vol. 38. Repr. in J. Feinberg, ed., Moral Concepts (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969) and in 1972b. 1964b. 'Adolescents into Adults', in T. C. B. Hollins, ed., Aims in Education (Manchester: Manchester University Press). Repr. in 1972d and 1992d. 1964c. 'A Question about Plato's Theory of Ideas', in M. Bunge, ed., The Critical Approach: Essays in Honor of Karl Popper (Glencoe, III.: Free Press of Glencoe). Repr. in 1971d. 1964d. 'The Promising Game', Revue Internationale de Philosophie 70. Repr. in P. Foot . ed.. Theories of Ethics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967); W. D. Hudson, ed., The Is-Ought Question (London: Macmillan, 1969); and in 1989b. Spanish translation in E. Rabossi and E Salmeron, eds., Etica y Analisis I (Mexico City: Mexico University Press, 1976), Polish in Etyka (1979) 1964e. 'Wat is Leven?', Elseviers Weekblad (in Dutch). English version in 1965b. 1964f. 'The Objectivity of Values', Common Factor I. 1965a. Review of G. H. von Wright, Norm and Action, Philosophical Quarterly 15. 1965b. 'What is Life?', Crucible (English version of 1964e). Repr. in 1972d. 1965c. 'Plato and the Mathematicians', in R. Bambrough, ed., New Essays on Plato and Aristotle (London: Routledge). Repr. in 1971d. 1966. 'Peace', RSA Lecture, Australian National University, Canberra, privately printed. Repr. in J. Rachels, ed., Moral Problems (New York: Harper & Row, 1970), and in 1972d. 1967a. 'The Lawful Government', in P. Laslett and W. G. Runciman, eds., Philosophy, Politics and Society (Oxford: Blackwell). Repr. in J. Rachels and E Tillman, eds., Moral and Social Problems (New York: Harper & Row, 1971). and 1972d. 1967b. 'Conventional Morality', 'Decision', 'Deliberation', 'Ethics', 'Intention', and 'Right and Wrong', in J. Macquarrie, ed., Dictionary of Christian Ethics (London: SCM Press). 1967c. Review of S. Hampshire, Freedom of the Individual, Philosophical Review 76. 1967d. 'Some Alleged Differences between Imperatives and Indicatives' , Mind 76. Repr. in 1971c. 1968a. Review of G. J. Warnock, Contemporary Moral Philosophy, Mind 77. 1968b. Review of R. S. Peters, The Concept of Education, Mind 77. 1969a. 'Practical Inferences', in V. Kruse, ed., Festskrift til Alf Ross (Copenhagen: Juristforbundets Vorlag). Repr. in 1971c. 1969b. Review of A. Ross, Directives and Norms, Mind 78. 1969c. 'Community and Communication', in S. Verney, ed., People and Cities (London: Fontana). Repr. in 1972d. 1969d. Review of B. G. Mitchell, Law, Morality and Religion, Philosophy 44. 1970a. 'Meaning and Speech Acts' (pdf file), Philosophical Review 79. Repr. in 1971c. 1970b. 'Condizioni intellettuali per la sopravvivenza dell' uomo', Proteus I. 1970c. Reply to R. S. Katz, 'Liberals, Fanatics and Not-so-innocent Bystanders', Jowett Papers, 1968-1969, ed. B. Y. Khanbhai et al. (Oxford: Blackwell). 1970d. General Introduction and Introduction to Meno in paperback edition of The Dialogues of Plato, trans. B. Jowett, ed. R. M. Hare and D. A. F. M. Russell (London: Sphere Books). 1971a. Review of L. van der Post, The Prisoner and the Bomb, New York Review of Books 17 (20 May). 1971b. 'Wanting: Some Pitfalls', in R. Binkley et al., eds., Agent, Action and Reason (Toronto, Ont.: Toronto University Press). Repr. in 1971c. German translation in A. Beckermann and G. Meggle, eds., Analytische Handlungstheorie (Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 1985). 1971c. Practical Inferences, containing 1959a, 1949, 1969a, 1970a, 197Ib, 'Austin's Distinction between Locutionary and Illocutionary Acts', and new appendices (London: Macmillan). 1971d. Essays on Philosophical Method, containing 1959a, 1960a, 1960b, 1964c, 1965c, 'The Practical Relevance of Philosophy', and 'The Argument from Received Opinion' (London: Macmillan). Italian translation, Armando, 1977. 1971e. 'Drugs and the Role of the Doctor', and other contributions to I. T. Ramsey and R. Porter, eds., Personality and Science (Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone). 1972a. 'Principles', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 73. Repr. in 1989b. 1972b. Essays on the Moral Concepts, containing 1951a (part), 1955a, 1957a, 1960e, 1963b, 1964a, and 'Wrongness and Harm' (London: Macmillan). 1972c. 'Rules of War and Moral Reasoning' (pdf file), Philosophy and Public Affairs I, Repr. in M. Cohen et al., eds., War and Moral Responsibility (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974), and in 1989c. 1972d. Applications of Moral Philosophy, containing 1955b (first article), 1960d (English version), 1964b, 1965b, 1966, 1967a, 1969c, 'Reasons of State', and 'Function and Tradition in Architecture' (London: Macmillan). Japanese translation, Tokyo: Keiso Shobo, 1981. 1972e. Review of G. J. Warnock, The Object of Morality, Ratio 14 (also in German edition). 1972f. 'Wissenschaft und praktische Philosophie', in A Diemer, ed., Proc. of 9. Deutscher Kongressfur Philosophie und Wissenschaft (Meisenheim: Hain). 1973a. Critical Study, 'Rawls' Theory of Justice' I and II, Philosophical Quarterly 23. Repr. in N. Daniels, ed., Reading Rawls (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975), and in 1989b. 1973b. 'The Simple Believer', in G. Outka and J. P. Reeder, eds., Religion and Morality (New York: Anchor Press). Repr. in T. Beauchamp et al., eds., Philosophy and the Human Condition (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980), and in 1992d. 1973c. 'Language and Moral Education', in G. Langford and D. J. O'Connor, eds., New Essays in the Philosophy of Education (London: Routledge). Repr. in 1979d with criticism by G. J. Warnock and reply, and in 1992d with reply only. 1973d. 'Sad Moralny (Moral Judgment)', Etyka II (Warsaw), with abstracts in English and Russian. 1974a. Comment on R. Edgley, 'Reason and Violence', in S. Korner, ed., Practical Reason (Oxford: Blackwell). 1974b. 'The Abnormal Child: Moral Dilemmas of Doctors and Parents', Documentation in Medical Ethics 3. Repr. as 'Survival of the Weakest' in S. Gorovitz, ed., Moral Problems in Medicine (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1976), and in 1993c. German translation in A. Leist, ed., Um Leben urld Tod (Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 1990). 1974c. 'Platonism in Moral Education: Two Varieties', Monist 58. Repr. in 1992d. French translation in M. Canto-Sperber, ed., volume of essays on Plato's Meno (Paris: Jacob, 1990). 1974d. 'What Use is Moral Philosophy', TV discussion with A. J. P. Kenny, in Philosophy in the Open (Milton Keynes: Open University). 1975a. 'Contrasting Methods of Environmental Planning', in R. S. Peters, ed., Nature and Conduct, Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures (London: Macmillan). Repr. in K. Goodpaster and K. Sayre. eds., Ethics and Problems of the 21st Century (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press. 1979), and in 1989c. 1975b. 'Autonomy as an Educational Ideal', in S. C. Brown, ed., Philosophers Discuss Education (London: Macmillan). Repr. in 1992d. 1975c. 'Abortion and the Golden Rule', Philosophy and Public Affairs 4. Repr. in R. Baker and E Elliston, eds., Philosophy and Sex (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus, 1975): in Moral Problems, ed. J. Rachels (New York: Harper & Row, 1978): in D. Goldberg, ed., Ethical Theory and Society (New York: Holt Rinehart, 1987): and in 1993c. German translation in A. Leist, ed., Um Leben und Tod (Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 1990): Italian in G. Ferranti and S. Maffettone, eds., Introduzione alla bioetica (Naples: Liguori, 1991 ). 1975d. 'Euthanasia: A Christian View'. Philosophic Exchange 2 (Proceedings of Center for Philosophic Exchange). Repr. in 1992d. 1976a. 'Ethical Theory and Utilitarianism', in H. D. Lewis, ed., Contemporary British Philosophy 4 (London: Allen & Unwin). Repr. in A. K. Sen and B. A. Williams, eds., Utilitarianism and Beyond (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982): in D. Barnett, ed., Western Moral Philosophy (Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield, 1994) and in 1989b. 1976b. 'Some Confusions about Subjectivity', in J. Bricke, ed., Freedom and Morality (Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas Press). Repr. in 1989b. 1976c. 'Political Obligation', in T. Honderich, ed., Social Ends and Political Means (London: Routledge). Repr. in 1989c. 1976d. 'Value Education in a Pluralist Society: A Philosophical Glance at the Humanities Curriculum Project', in R. S. Peters, ed., Proceedings of the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain 10. Repr. in M. Lipman, ed., Growing Up with Philosophy (Philadelphia. Pa.: Temple University Press. 1978), and in 1992d. 1976e. Review of H.-N. Castaneda, The Structure of Morality, Journal of Philosophy 73. 1977a. 'Medical Ethics: Can the Moral Philosopher Help?', in S. Spicker and T. Engelhardt, eds., Philosophy and Medicine 3: Philosophical Medical Ethics, its Nature and Significance (Dordrecht: Reidel). Repr. in 1993c. 1977b. 'Geach on Murder and Sodomy' (about 'is'-'ought' derivations), Philosophy 52. 1977c. 'Opportunity for What? Some Remarks on Current Disputes on Equality in Education',Oxford Review of Education 3. Repr. in 1992d. 1977d. 'Sprawiedliwosc i rownosc', Etyka 15 (Warsaw) (in Polish, with abstracts in English and Russian). English version in 1978d. repr. in 1989c. Discussed in 1979h. 1978a. 'Prediction and Moral Appraisal', Midwest Studies in Philosophy 3. Repr. in 1993c. 1978b. 'Relevance', in A. Goldman and J. Kim. eds., Values and Morals (Dordrecht: Reidel). Repr. in 1989b. 1978c. 'Moral Philosophy', TV interview with B. Magee in his Men of Ideas (London: BBC). 1978d. 'Justice and Equality', in J. Arthur and W. Shaw. eds., Justice and Economic Distribution (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall). Revised English version of 1977d. Repr. in J. Sterba, ed., Justice: Alternative Political Perspectives (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1991); in W. Kymlicka, ed. Justice in Political Philosophy (Aldershot: Elgar, 1992): in L. Pojman and R Westmoreland, eds., Equality (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997): in M. Hajdin, ed., The Notion of Equality (forthcoming): and in 1989C. Discussed in 1979h. 1979a. 'What Makes Choices Rational?', Review of Metaphysics 32. Repr. in 1989b. 1979b. 'What is Wrong with Slavery', Philosophy and Public Affairs 8. Repr. in J. Arthur, ed., Morality and Moral Controversies (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1979); in P. Singer, ed., Readings in Applied Ethics, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986); in T. Lott, ed., Slavery and Social Philosophy (Totowa. NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998); and in 1989c. German translation in Conceptus 15 (1981). 1979c. 'Non-descriptivist Ethics' and 'Utilitarianism' in W. Reich, ed., Encyclopedia of Bioethics (New York: Free Press). 1979d. Reprint of 1973c with criticism by G. J. Warnock and reply, in D. B. Cochrane et al., The Domain of Moral Education (Toronto, Ont.: Paulist Press). Repr. without Warnock's criticism in 1992d. 1979e. 'Universal and Past-Tense Prescriptions: A Reply to Mr. Ibberson' Analysis 39. 1979f. 'On Terrorism', Journal of Value Inquiry I3. Repr. in 1989c. 1979g. 'Utilitarianism and the Vicarious Affects', in E. Sosa, ed., The Philosophy of Nicholas Rescher (Dordrecht: Reidel). Repr. in 1989b. 1979h. 'Justice and Equality: Some Comments on the 1979 Symposium in Warsaw', Dialectics and Humanism 6 (Warsaw). Contains discussion of 1978d. 1979i. 'Behaviour Therapy and Moral Responsibility', Midwife, Health Visitor and Community Nurse (London). 1980a. 'Moral Conflicts', in S. McMurrin, ed., The Tanner Lectures on Human Values vol. 1 (Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press and Cambridge Cambridge University Press). Revised in 1981a, chs. 2 f. 1980b. Review of T. Nagel, Mortal Questions, Philosophical Books 21. 1981a. (MT) Moral Thinking: Its Levels, Method and Point, with bibliography of R. M. Hare's writings 1971-80 (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Italian translation, Bologna: II Mulino, 1989: Chinese, Hong Kong: Philosophia, 1992; German, Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 1992: Japanese, Tokyo: Keiso, 1994; Swedish, Stockholm: Thales, 1995. 1981b. Review of P. Singer, The Expanding Circle. New Republic (7 Feb.). 1981c. 'On a Misunderstanding of Geach's', Analysis 41. 1981d. 'On the Possibility of a Rational Foundation of Norms', in A. S. Skiadas, ed., Scientific and Extra-scientific Rationality (Proceedings of conference of Ellenike Anthropistike Etaireia at Portaria, Thessaly, 1978) (Athens). 1982a. Plato (Oxford: Oxford University Press). German translation, Stuttgart: Reclam, 1990; Spanish, Madrid: Alianza, 1992: Malaysian, Kuala Lumpur: DBP, 1993; Romanian, Bucharest: Humanitas, 1997; Polish, Warsaw: Urbanski, forthcoming; Portuguese, Lisbon: Presenca, forthcoming; Indonesian, Jakarta: Grafiti, forthcoming. Repr. in R. M. Hare, J. Barnes, and H. Chadwick, Founders of Thought (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), Czech translation, Prague: Svoboda, 1994; Chinese translation forthcoming 1982b. 'Utilitarianism and Double Standards: A Reply to Dr. Annas', Oxford Review of Education 8. 1982c. 'Moral Philosophy: Some Waymarks' (in Hebrew), in A. Kasher and S. Lappin, eds., New Trends in Philosophy (Tel Aviv: Yachdav). 1982d. Interview with Carl Rudbeck, Svenska Dagbladet, Feb. (in Swedish). 1983a. 'Philosophical Introduction', in S. Bloch and P. Chodoff, eds., Psychiatric Ethics (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Repr. as 'The Philosophical Basis of Psychiatric Ethics', in 1993c. 1983b. 'On the Scientific Justification of Norms', in A. Diemer, ed., 16. Weltkongress fur Philosophie (Frankfurt a. M.: Peter Lang). 1984a. 'Do Agents Have to be Moralists?', in Edward Regis, Jr., Gewirth's Ethical Rationalism (Chicago, III.: University of Chicago Press). 1984b. 'Supervenience', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society. supp. vol.56. Repr. in 1989b. 1984c. 'Utility and Rights: Comment on David Lyons' Paper', Nomos 24: Ethics, Economics and the Law. Repr. in 1989c. 1984d. 'Arguing about Rights'Emory Law Journal 33. Repr. in 1989c. I984e. 'Liberty and Equality: How Politics Masquerades as Philosophy'. Social Philosophy and Policy 2. Repr. in 1989c. 1984f. 'Some Reasoning about Preferences: A Response to Essays by Persson, Feldman and Schueler,'Ethics 95. Repr. in 1989b. 1984g. 'Rights, Utility and Universalization: a Reply to John Mackie', in R. Frey, ed., Utility and Rights (Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press). Repr. in 1989c. 1985a. 'Ontology in Ethics'. in T. Honderich, ed., Morality and Objectivity Tribute to J. L. Mackie (London: Routledge). Repr. in 1989b. 1985b. 'Philosophy and Practice: Some Issues about War and Peace', in A. P. Griffiths, ed., Philosophy and Practice (Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 19, supp. to Philosophy 59) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Repr. in 1989c. 1985c. 'Little Human Guinea-Pigs', in M. Lockwood, ed., Moral Dilemmas in Modern Medicine (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Repr. in 1993c. 1985d. 'The Ethics of Experimentation on Human Children', in R. B. Marcus et al., eds., Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science 7 (Proceedings of 7th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Salzburg 1983) (Amsterdam: North Holland). No overlap with 1985c. 1985e. 'Come decidere razionalmente le questioni morali', in L. Gianformaggio and E. Lecaldano, eds., Etica e diritto: le vie della giustificazione razionale (Rome: Laterza). English version in 1986i, repr. in 1989b. 1985f. Comment on T. Beauchamp, 'Manipulative Advertising', Business and Professional Ethics Journal 3. 1986a. 'A Kantian Utilitarian Approach', in G. Ezorsky, ed., Moral Rights in the Workplace (New York: State University of New York Press). Excerpt from 1989c, ch. II. 1986b. 'Why Do Applied Ethics?', in R. M. Fox and J. P de Marco, eds., New Directions in Ethics (London: Routledge). Repr. in R. Shehadi and D. M. Rosenthal, eds., Applied Ethics and Ethical Theory (Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, 1988), and in 1989b. Italian translation in M. Mori, ed., Questioni di bioetica (Rome: Riuniti, 1988). 1986c. 'A Reductio ad Absurdum of Descriptivism', in S. Shanker, ed., Philosophy in Britain Today (London: Croom Helm). Repr. in 1989b. 1986d. 'Health', Journal of Medical Ethics 12. Repr. in 1993c. 1986e. 'Liberty, Equality and Fraternity in South Africa?', in South African Journal of Philosophy 5. Also in Philosophical Forum 8 (1986). Repr. in P. Collins, ed., Thinking about South Africa (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1990), and in 1989c. 1986f. 'Punishment and Retributive Justice', Philosophical Topics 2, Papers on Ethics, ed. J. Adler and R. N. Lee. Repr. in 1989c. 1986g. 'Universalizability' and 'Utilitarianism', and articles listed under 1967b, in J. Childress and J. Macquarrie, eds., New Dictionary of Christian Ethics (London: SCM Press), also published as Westminster Dictionary of Christian Ethics (Philadelphia, Pa.: Westminster Press). 1986h. 'Warunkowe i bezwarunkowe obowiazywanie norm moralnych' ('The Conditional and Unconditional Validity of Moral Norms') (reply to Ija Lazari-Pavlowska's paper of the same name), Etyka 22 (Warsaw). 1986i. 'How to Decide Moral Questions Rationally', Critica 18 (English version of 1985e). Repr. in 1989b. 1986j. Comment on Putnam, Critica 18, Appendix. 1987a. 'An Ambiguity in Warnock', Bioethics I. 1987b. 'Moral Reasoning about the Environment:, Journal of Applied Philosophy 4. Repr. in 1989c. 1987c. Review of B. Mayo, The Philosophy of Right and Wrong, Philosophical Quarterly 37. 1987d. 'In Vitro Fertilization and the Warnock Report', in R. E Chadwick, ed., Ethics, Reproduction and Genetic Control (London: Croom Helm). Repr. in 1993c. 1987e. 'Why Moral Language?', in P. Pettit et al., eds., Metaphysics and Morality: Essays in Honour oJ J. J. C. Smart (Oxford: Blackwell). Repr. in 1992d. 1987f. Comment on J. Kaufman. 'Hamlethics in Planning', Business and Professional Ethics Journal 6. 1987g. 'Embryo Experimentation: Public Policy in a Pluralist Society', Bioethics News 7. Repr. in K. Dawson and J. Hudson, eds., IVF: The Current Debate (conference proceedings) (Clayton. Vic.:1987); in H. Kuhse et al., eds., Embryo Experimentation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 19go); in K. W. M. Fulford, ed., Medicine and Moral Reasoning (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1994): and 1993C. German translation in H.-M. Sass, ed., Medizin und Ethik (Stuttgart: Reclam, 1989). 1987h. 'La ensenanza de la etica medica: la contribucion de la filosofia', IANO 33. 1988a. 'When Does Potentiality Count? A Comment on Lockwood', Bioethics 2. Repr. in 1993c and in N. Fotion and J. C. Heller, eds., Contingent Future Persons (Dordrecht: Kluwer, forthcoming). 1988b. 'Possible People', Bioethics 2. Repr. in 1993c. 1988c. Comments on R. B. Brandt, W. K. Frankena, A. Gibbard, J. Griffin. J. C. Harsanyi, W. D. Hudson, T. Nagel, D. A. J. Richards. T. M. Scanlon, P. Singer, J. O. Urmson, Z. Vendler, and B. Williams, in D. Seanor and N. Fotion, eds., Hare and Critics (Oxford: Oxford University Press). 1988d. 'A Kantian Approach to Abortion' in M. Bayles and K. Henley, eds., Right Conduct: Theories and Applications (New York: Random House). Repr. in S. Luper-Foy and C. Brown, eds., The Moral Life (New York: Holt Rinehart, 1991), and in 1993c, and with commentary and reply by R. B. Brandt in Social Theory and Practice 15 (1989). Spanish translation in Dianoia 36 (1990). 1988e. 'The Poverty of Ideas', Guardian (II Oct.). Repr. in Political Studies Association (June 1990). 1989a. 'Some Sub-atomic Particles of Logic', Mind 98. In 1999. 1989b. Essays in Ethical Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Contains 1964d. 1972a, 1973a, 1976a, 1976b, 1978b, 1979a, 1979g, 1984b. 1984fi. 1985a, 1986b, 1986i, and 1994d. Italian translation, Milan: II Saggiatore, 1992. 1989c. Essays on Political Morality (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Contains 1972c, 1975a, 1976c, 1978d, 1979b, 1979f, 1984c, 1984d, 1984e, 1984g, 1985b, 1986e, 1986f, 1987b, 'The Role of Philosophers in the Legislative Process', 'Rebellion', and 'The Rights of Employees: The European Court of Human Rights and the Case of Young, James and Webster'. Italian translation, Milan: Il Saggiatore, 1995: Arabic (in part), Beirut: Saqi, 1996. 1989d. 'Brandt on Fairness to Happiness', with reply by R. B. Brandt, Social Theory and Practice 15. 1989e. 'Una aproximacion kantiana a la politica sanitaria', Agora 8. Repr. in part as 'Health Care Policy: Some Options' in 1993c. 1989f. Replies to Persson, Rabinowicz, Sandoe, and Wetterstrom, Theoria 55. 1989g. Interview with P. Apsden, Times Higher Education Supplement (June). 1991a. 'Universal Prescriptivism', in P. Singer, ed., A Companion to Ethics (Oxford: Blackwell). German translation in C. Fehlge and G. Meggle. eds., Zum moralischen Denken (Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 1995). 1991b. 'Are there Moral Authorities?' in D. R. Bromham et al.. eds.. Reproductive Medicine (Berlin: Springer). Repr. in 1992d. 1991c. 'Kant utilitarista?', Materiali per una storia della cultura giuridica 21. English version in 1993a, German in C. Fehige and G. Meggle, eds., Zum moralischen Denken (Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 1995). 1992a. 'Morality, Moral Theory and Applied and Professonal Ethics: Reply to Bernard Gert', Professional Ethics I. 1992b. 'One Philosopher's Approach to Business and Professional Ethics', Business and Professional Ethics Journal II. Repr. in C. Cowton and R. Crisp. eds., Business Ethics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming). In 1999. 1992c. 'What are Cities For? The Ethics of Urban Planning', in C. C. W. Taylor, eds., Ethics and the Environment (Oxford: Corpus Christi College). German translation in 19gsa: Italian in S. Moroni. ed., collection on planning and social justice (Milan: Franco Angeli, forthcoming). In 1999. 1992d. Essays on Religion and Education (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Contains 1950c, 1957f, 1964b, 1973b, 1973c, 1974c, 1975h. 1975d, 1976d, 1977c, 1979d, 1987e, 'How did Morality Get a Bad Name?', and 'Satanism and Nihilism'. 1992e. 'Moral Terms', 'Prescriptivism', 'Slavery', 'Universalizability', and 'Weakness of Will', in L. Becker, ed., Encyclopedia of Ethics (New York: Garland). 1992f. 'Utilitarianism and Moral Education: Comment on S. Levy's Paper', Studies in Philosophy and Education II. 1993a 'Could Kant have been a Utilitarian?', Utilitas 5. Also in R. M. Dancy, ed., Kant and Critique (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1993). Repr. in 1998c. 1993b. 'The Ethics of Medical Involvement in Torture: Comment on R. Downie's Paper', Journal of Medical Ethics 19. In 1999. 1993c. Essays on Bioethics (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Contains 1974b, 1975c, 1977a, 1978a, 1983a,1985c, 1986d, 1987d, 1987g, 1988a, 1988b, 1988d, English version of 1989e, 'Moral Problems about the Control of Behaviour', and 'Why I am only a Demi-Vegetarian'. 1993d. Guest Editorial, 'Is Medical Ethics Lost?', and letter,Journal of Medical Ethics 19. In 1999. 1993e. 'Utilitarianism and Deontological Principles', in R. Gillon, ed.. Principles of Health Care Ethics (Chichester: Wiley). 1993f. 'Brandt's Methods of Ethics', in B. Hooker, ed., Rationality, Rules and Utility: New Essays on Richard Brandt's Moral Philosophy (Boulder, Colo.: Westview). 1993g. 'Objective Prescriptions', in E. Villanueva, ed., Naturalism and Normativity: Philosophical Issues 4 (Atascadero, Calif.: Ridgeview). Also in A. P. Griffiths, ed., Ethics (Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 1992/3) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993). 1994a. 'Applied Philosophy and Moral Theory: R. M. Hare talks to Philosophy Today', Philosophy Today 38. 1994b. 'Methods of Bioethics: Some Defective Proposals',Monash Bioethics Review 13. Repr. in J. W. Sumner and J. Boyle, eds., Philosophical Perspectives on Bioethics (Toronto, Ont.: University of Toronto Press, 1996). In 1999. 1994c. 'Philosophie et Conflit', Revue de Metaphysique et Morale 99. English version in 1997b and 1999. 1994d. 'The Structure of Ethics and Morals', in P. Singer, ed., Ethics (Oxford: Oxford University Press). 1995a. Replies to Birnbacher, Corradini, Fehige, Hirsch, Hoche, Kusser, Kutschera, Lampe, Leist Lenzen, Lumer, Millgram, Morscher, Nida Rumelin, Rohs, Schabet, Schone-Seifert, Spitzley, Stranxinger, Trapp, Vogler, Wimmer, and Wolf, in C. Fehige and G. Meggle, eds., Zum moralischen Denken (Frankirt a M Suhrkampt Contains also German translations of 1991a, 1992c, and 1993a. 1995b. 'Off on the Wrong Foot', in J. Couture and K. Nielsen, eds., On the Relevance of Metaethics: New Essays on Metaethics, Canadian Journal of Philosophy Supp. 21; a reply to P. R. Foot, 'Does Moral Subjectivism Rest on a Mistake?', Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 15 (1995). In 1999 as 'Philippa Foot on Subjectivism'. 1996a. 'Philosophy of Language in Ethics', in M. Dascal et al., eds., Handbuch Sprachphilosophie (Berlin: De Gruyter) Repr. revised in 1998c. 1996b 'Imperatifs, prescriptions et leur logique', in M Canto-Sperbet Dictionnaire de philosophie morale (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France). English version in 1999. 1996c 'Foundationalism and Coherentism in Ethics', in W. Sinnott- Armstrong and M. Timmons, eds., Moral Knowledge: New Readings in Moral Epistemology (Oxford: Oxford University Press). In 1999. 1996d. 'A New Kind of Ethical Naturalism?', in P. French et al., eds., Moral Concepts, Midwest Studies in Philosophy 20 (Notre Dame, Ind Notre Dame University Press).In 1999. 1996e. 'Internalism and Externalism in Ethics', in J. Hintikka and K. Puhl eds., Proceedings of the 18th International Wittgenstein Congress (Vienna Holder-Pichler-Tempsky). In 1999. 1996f. 'A Philosophical Self-Portrait', in T. Mautner, ed., A Dictionary of Philosophy (Oxford: Blackwell). 1997a. 'Preferences of Possible People', in C. Fehige and U. Wessels, eds., Preferences (Proceedings of Conference in Saarbrucken, 1992) (Berlin: De Gruyter). 1997b. 'Philosophy and Conflict', in O. Neumaier et al., eds., Applied Ethics in a Troubled World (Proceedings of aborted 15th International Wittgenstein Congress) (Dordrecht Kluwer). The English version of 1994c. In 1999. 1997c. Sorting Out Ethics, containing 'A Taxonomy of Ethical Theories' (the Axel Hagerstrom Lectures given in Uppsala in 1991), 'Defence of the Enterprise', 1993a, 1996a, and bibliography of R. M. Hare's writings 1949-98 (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Chapter 8: Could Kant have been a Utilitarian?http://deontology.com/ 1998a. 'Prescriptivism', in E. Craig, ed., Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (London: Routledge). 1998b. 'A Utilitarian Approach to Ethics', in H. Kuhse and P. Singer, eds., A Companion to Bioethics (Oxford: Blackwell). Expanded version in 1999. 1998c. 'Towards Objectivity in Morals', in Ouyang Kang and S. Fuller, eds., Contemporary British and American Philosophy and Philosophers (Beijing: People's Press). Based on 1994d, with additional autobiographical material. In Chinese; English version planned. 1998d. Interview, 'Die Vernunft kommt zuerst', in Borchers et al., eds., in Einladen zum Denken (Vienna: Holder-Pichler-Tempsky). 1998e. 'Preferences of Possible People', in C. Fehige and U. Wessels, eds., Preferences (Berlin: De Gruyer). In 1999. 1999. Objective Prescriptions and Other Essays (Oxford: Clarendon Press) 1993g, 1998a, 1992e, 1989a, 1996b (in English), 1997b, 1996d, 1995b, 1996e, 1992e, 1996e, 1998d, 1994b, expanded version of 1998b, 1993d, 'Loyalty and Obedience', 'Why Racism is an Evil', 1993b, 1992b, 1992c.
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Richard Mervyn Hare (March 21, 1919 – January 29, 2002) was an English moral philosopher who held the post of White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Oxford from 1966 until 1983, and then taught for a number of years at the University of Florida. His meta-ethical theories were influential during the second half of the twentieth century. Indeed, during that time, he was one of perhaps a half-dozen of the leading philosophers of ethics in the English speaking world.
Some of Hare's students, such as Brian McGuinness and Bernard Williams went on to become well-known philosophers themselves. The one who is perhaps best known outside philosophical circles, Peter Singer—known for his work in animal rights and animal liberation—has explicitly adopted many elements of Hare's thought.
Hare was born in Backwell, Somerset, and attended Rugby School in Warwickshire, followed in 1937, by Balliol College, Oxford, where he read Greats (Classics). Although he was a pacifist, he volunteered for service in the Royal Artillery and was taken as a prisoner of war by the Japanese from the fall of Singapore in 1942, to the end of the Second World War. This experience had a lasting impact on Hare's philosophical views, particularly his view that moral philosophy has an obligation to help people live their lives as moral beings (King 2004). His earliest work in philosophy, which has never been published, dates from this period, and in it he tried to develop a system that might "serve as a guide to life in the harshest conditions," according to The Independent.
He returned to Oxford after the war, and in 1947, married Catherine Verney, a marriage that produced one son and three daughters. (Hare's son, John E. Hare, is also a philosopher.) He was elected fellow and tutor in philosophy at Balliol from 1947–1996; honorary fellow at Balliol from 1974-2002; and was appointed Wilde Lecturer in Natural Religion, 1963–66; and White's Professor of Moral Philosophy, 1966–1983, which accompanied a move to Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He left Oxford in 1983, to become Graduate Research Professor of Philosophy at the University of Florida at Gainseville, a post he held until 1994.
He died in Ewelme, Oxfordshire, on January 29, 2002, after suffering a series of strokes.
A product of his time, Hare was greatly influenced by the emotivism of A. J. Ayer and Charles L. Stevenson, the ordinary language philosophy of J. L. Austin, the later philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, utilitarianism, and Immanuel Kant.
Hare held that ethical rules should not be based on a principle of utility, though he took into account utilitarian considerations. This distinguishes him from classical utilitarians, such as Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. His book, Sorting Out Ethics, might be interpreted as saying that Hare is as much a Kantian as he is a utilitarian, but others disagree with this assessment. Although Hare used many concepts from Kant, especially the idea of universalizability, he is still a consequentialist as opposed to a deontologist, the latter of which Kantianism is usually identified with.
Hare himself wrote that his main interests were theoretical and applied ethics. He insisted on a distinction between descriptive and prescriptive elements in the meaning of moral statements. (This distinction is very close and possibly equivalent to the distinction between descriptive or observational ethics—the observation of what ethical beliefs or principles actually follow or observe—and normative ethics, or the study of what ethical beliefs or principles people ought to or should hold and observe.) Hare noted that the reasons for moral statements differ from culture to culture, and if that were the only thing that counts, the result would be relativism. But, he held, objectivity is attained because of the prescriptive element. Moreover, it is the universalizability of a prescriptive statement, common to different cultures that share a moral language, that makes possible the development of a cross-cultural normative ethics ("A Philosophical Self-Portrait").
According to universal prescriptivism, moral terms such as "good," "ought," and "right" have two logical or semantic properties: Universalizability and prescriptivity. By universalizability, Hare meant that moral judgments must identify the situation they describe according to a finite set of universal terms, excluding proper names, but not definite descriptions. By prescriptivity, he meant that moral agents must perform those acts they consider themselves to have an obligation to perform whenever they are physically and psychologically able to do so. In other words, he argued that it made no sense for someone to say, sincerely: "I ought to do X," and then fail to do X. This was identified as a major flaw in Hare's system, as it appeared to take no account of akrasia, or weakness of the will. Jordan Whyatt also offered many influential ideas on this topic.
Hare argued that the combination of universalizability and prescriptivity leads to a certain form of consequentialism, namely, preference utilitarianism.
Hare departed from Kant's view that only the most general maxims of conduct be used (for example, "do not steal"), but the consequences ignored, when applying the categorical imperative. To ignore consequences leads to absurdity: For example, that it would be wrong to steal a terrorist's plans to blow up a nuclear facility. All the specific facts of a circumstance must be considered, and these include probable consequences. They also include the relevant, universal properties of the facts: For example, the psychological states of those involved.
An example of Hare's argument would be this:
Supposing one require a large sum of money, and asked a friend to lend it to him. She refuses. One claims that it is wrong for her to refuse. "Wrong" is a moral term, so, according to Hare, one must abide by its logical properties. The first property, universalizability, demands that one formulate a description of the situation using only universal terms. So one says:
Whenever I ask a friend for a large sum of money, it is wrong for her to refuse to give it to me.
But this violates the universalizability requirement, insofar as the description contains the terms "I" and "me," which do not designate a universal property, but denote an individual instead. So one tries again:
Whenever someone asks a friend for a large sum of money, it is wrong for them to refuse the request.
This new description satisfies the universalizability requirement, because all its terms are universal. Now the description must also satisfy the second requirement, that of prescriptivity. That is, one must determine whether he is willing to act on the universal formulation.
At first, one might argue that it does not apply to someone else. If one considers it wrong for his friend to refuse to lend him a large sum of money, it is his friend, not him, who should be acting accordingly.
However—and here is where the two properties combine and the philosophically interesting results appear—universalizability requires that the same judgment be made, and prescriptivity that the same action be taken, irrespective of one's particular position in the situation. In other words, just as one had to deprive the description of its particular (non-universal) terms, it is now impossible for one to exclude himself from the possibility of being in the situation that your friend was in. According to universalizability, if one were not the one asking for money, but the one who was being asked, the same moral judgment—that whenever someone asks a friend for a large sum of money, it is wrong for them to refuse the request—ought to apply; and, according to the rule of prescriptivity, one would have to act accordingly.
If one were not prepared to act accordingly, he would be violating this rule; and in fact one wouldn't be uttering a moral judgment at all, according to Hare.
To re-enter the moral discourse, one would have to modify your original judgment so that, once universalized, one would still be able to act in the way it would ask him to act. By a series of universal conjectures and prescriptive refutations—akin to philosopher Karl Popper's falsificationism (Freedom and Reason, chapter 4)—one would eventually arrive at the right moral judgment, which would be the one he would prefer in all the possible situations.
In each case, however, one cannot simply put oneself in another's shoes, as it were; one must also adopt the universal properties of the perspectives of the other person. Universal prescriptivism, thus, leads to preference utilitarianism. And so, according to Hare, does Kantianism: To demand, as Kant's first formulation of the categorical imperative does, that one could will that her maxim be a universal law, is to ask the moral agent to prescribe the judgment that she could accept were she in any of the positions involved, which of course, is exactly Hare's point.
Hare was resigned to the idea that the content of moral propositions could not be shown to be subject to truth conditions, and, therefore, could not be subject to objective, universal standards of truth. While this suggests that moral relativists have the upper hand from a foundational standpoint, Hare said they were mistaken in one important respect: All moral propositions and arguments are subject to at least one universal standard, namely, logic. According to Hare, this fact also makes moral discourse intelligible.
Hare's work in applied ethics
Besides his interest and work in meta-ethics, Hare also worked in applied ethics, using his normative theory to illuminate many fields. These included bioethics, political philosophy (especially questions about rights), environmental ethics, education, and philosophy of religion. He published books of essays in each of those fields.
In addition to his work in ethics, Hare wrote on Plato, Greek Philosophy, practical inferences, and philosophy of religion.
Some other philosophers have also used Hare's universal prescriptivism in applied ethics. Peter Singer, for example, uses it as a means of judging conduct, though, unlike Hare, Singer bases his system on a principle of utility.
- The Language of Morals. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1952. ISBN 0198810776
- Freedom and Reason. Oxford: Oxford Universiy Press, 1963. ISBN 0195085655
- Moral Thinking: Its Levels, Method, and Point. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981. ISBN 0198246609
- Applications of Moral Philosophy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972. ISBN 0333114213
- Essays on the Moral Concepts. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1972. ISBN 0520022319
- Essays in Ethical Theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York Oxford University Press, 1989. ISBN 0198240716
- Sorting Out Ethics. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. ISBN 0198237278
- Essays on Political Morality. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. ISBN 0198249942
- Essays on Bioethics. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. ISBN 0198239831
- Essays on Religion and Education. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992. ISBN 0198249977
- Objective Prescriptions and Other Essays. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999. ISBN 0198238533
- Sorting out Ethics. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. ISBN 0198237278
- "A Philosophical Self-Portrait," in The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy. London: Penguin, 1997, 234-235. ISBN 0141018402
In addition his works in ethics and applied ethics, Hare also published several other books:
- Plato. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982. ISBN 019287585X
- Greek Philosophers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0192854224
- Essays on Philosophical Method. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972. ISBN 0520021789
- Practical Inferences. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972. ISBN 0520021797
- Founders of Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Most of the anthologies in English on ethics published in the last two decades of the twentieth century contain one or more essays by Hare.
All links retrieved June 20, 2015.
General philosophy sources
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