What is an annotated bibliography?
An annotated bibliography is a list of the sources (e.g. books, journal articles, etc.) that you used to research a topic in preparation for writing a term paper. In an annotated bibliography, each source in the list is followed by a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph of 4-5 sentences (approx. 150 words or more), which can also include its relevance to your paper topic. An annotated bibliography should inform the reader by providing a clear indication of each source's relevancy, accuracy and quality.
Sample entries from annotated bibliographies
Summary/descriptive type (in APA style)
Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924.
Analysis of data gathered by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods indicates that although racial and socioeconomic inequalities are relevant factors, they are not the singular or primary influences on neighborhood crime. Findings suggest that neighborhood violence is predicted by measures of informal social control, social cohesion and trust, and perceptions of violence. Consistent with the social organization model, collective efficacy is shown to mediate the influence of residential stability in predicting neighborhood violence.
Note: the example above is taken from:
Brossoie, N., Graham, B., & Lee, S. (2005). Families and communities: An annotated bibliography. Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 54(5), 666-675. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2005.00350.x
Other sample entries
Purdue Online Writing Center (OWL) provides sample entries for the three main types of annotated bibliographies using APA, MLA, and Chicago styles: summary/descriptive, critical/evaluative, and combination
For more information, ask a librarian.
The IB Extended Essay is a 4,000-word thesis written under a supervision of an advisor and is a mandatory component of the IB Diploma. This essay, along with the TOK presentation, could give you up to 3 additional points toward your overall Diploma score.
Table Of Contents
How do I start my Extended Essay?
The best way to start an essay with a free-ended topic is to find an area of interest. What would you like to write about? Brainstorm if you have no ideas. Jam-write for 10 minutes straight without stopping or make a mind map of what you’re interested in. EssayPro has many good brainstorming tips here.
How do I Pick an IB Essay Topic
Pick a topic that’s one of your IB subjects or something that’s closely related to your hobbies or passions. In this stage, make sure your topic is broad, so you have room for exploration.
Now, this topic is too broad. It could be a novel or a Ph.D. dissertation. That’s no good; you need to narrow this topic down.
At this point, you should do some research on your topic and find out if you’re actually interested in it. If you find it boring, refer back to the brainstorming section.
How do I create a research question?
Now that you know more about your topic, ask questions that pique your interests as well as ones that you crave an answer for. This is essential for Criterion A (research question).
Here is an example of some good research questions or potential topics:
- Economics: How did College Board monopolize aptitude testing?
- Psychology: What affects did the Syrian refugee crisis have on the psyche of young Children?
- History: How did the Second Red Scare, lasting roughly from 1950 to 1956, heighten tensions between Russia and America during the Cold War.
- Chemistry: How does Iron sedimentation affect the water quality in West Africa?
- Biology: Do earlier school start times hinder children’s ability to learn?
- English: How has Albert Camus’ novel The Stranger been lost in translation?
- Math: What makes Euler’s Identity the most beautiful equation of all time?
- Film: How has Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho shaped the thriller genre?
How do I pick an Advisor?
Pick an Advisor that knows a lot about your topic. A biology teacher would not be great for your History EE.
Meeting with your advisor is not mandatory, however, it is a very good idea to do so. The more help you can get on this thing, the better.
When is a good time to start writing?
Start as soon as possible. Your life will be so much easier if you have your essay complete before Year II. If you’re overwhelmed during the school year, do your extended essay during the summer; your future you will thank you.
Now that you have your research question, build a paper outline around it. The introduction should contain your research query and your main argument, otherwise known as the thesis statement. The body is easiest to divide into three parts. The conclusion should restate your argument and summarize your findings. An outline should just be the notes of what you plan to state. Do not fiddle with the roman numerals; keep it clean with bullet points and short sentences.
At this stage, you should be reading through your primary sources and creating an annotated bibliography. This just means posting any relevant information that you plan to quote or use in your essay into a separate document and listing some points that you plan to address. Start your Works Cited page right away.
An extended essay cover page is easy, but an extremely important component of your essay. If you don’t follow the title page format of the IB closely, you might jeopardize your essay score. The title page is a standalone document with the title of your essay and your name centered. Include the name of your school and your IB number.
Your paper introduction should state your thesis and your research question. In order to get the highest benchmark for this section, you must present this: “The context of the research question is clearly demonstrated. The introduction clearly explains the significance of the topic and why it is worthy of investigation.” This last sentence is important. Don’t forget to state why your topic is important to study. This is a good tip for any essay; if something isn’t important, why would it be worth reading?
Essay Writing Advice From Our Professional Team
Jessie Pro Writer, from EssayPro
Writing a good extended essay is difficult, but if you are an IB student, you’ll know that those three extra points can really make a big difference. Remember that it's not as overwhelming as it sounds. Some people write a custom essay that’s 6,000 to 8,000 words long, while others will reach about 2800-3500 on their first draft. An important thing to keep in mind that 4,000 words is the maximum word count.
Personal writer advice is to start this as soon as possible. You will thank yourself in the second year if you already have your extended essay done. If word count is what you’re worried about, then you would probably want to write over 3,000 words, since a short essay might imply that the topic was not investigated thoroughly. However, some essay topics may require only 2,000 words to investigate them fully. As the article articulates and I want to reinforce: do not pick a subject that you don’t think you’ll like. It is of utmost importance that you genuinely enjoy what you’re writing about. The topic selection is wide enough; you can explore any IB class that exists. One constraint though is that you cannot do your essay in Theory of Knowledge. In gist, aim high and you will succeed!
Breaking down the IB Extended Essay criteria
Criterion A: Make sure your research question is “sharp and focused”. This is not a place to add snaz to your writing.
Criterion B: Restate your research question and state your thesis. Make sure to define exactly why your research query is important.
Criterion C: Use a wide range of primary, secondary, and tertiary sources. Don’t forget to work on that Works Cited page as you go.
Criterion D: Make sure you wholesomely understand what you’re writing about. Spend a lot of time reading your sources and learning things about your subject.
Criterion E: Your essay needs to flow logically and coherently. Stick to your outline, don’t go on tangents. Extra information that doesn’t answer your research topic will not grant you a better mark, it will only hinder the overall quality of your essay.
Criterion F: Analyze your information. Make connections throughout your essay. Don’t simply list factual information; no one wants to read that. In order to really hit those top scores, you need to elaborate on multiple aspects of the information you present.
Criterion G: Make sure your language is coherent and straight to the point. Avoid passive constructions and adverbs.
Criterion H: Your conclusion is very important; as mentioned before, you should restate your findings and include any unresolved questions you didn’t answer in your body paragraphs.
Criterion I: This criterion is the easiest to do and the easiest to mess up. After completing your essay, double and triple check that your “layout, organization, appearance and formal elements of the essay consistently follow a standard format.” Make sure you have the title page, table of contents, page numbers, illustrative material, quotations, documentation (including references, citations and bibliography) and appendices.
Criterion J: Your essay needs to be special. Throughout your essay and in your conclusion, demonstrate “intellectual initiative, depth of understanding and insight.” Be analytical and define why your topic is important. If you are interested in what you’re saying, most likely the reader will also be fond of your information.